Bull. Korean Math. Soc.
Published online May 12, 2022
Copyright © The Korean Mathematical Society.
Jun Ho Lee
Mokpo National University
It is well known that the continued fraction expansion of $\sqrt{d}$ has the form $[a_0, \overline{a_1, \ldots, a_{l-1}, 2a_0}]$ and $a_1, \ldots, a_{l-1}$ is a palindromic sequence of positive integers. For a given positive integer $l$ and a palindromic sequence of positive integers $a_1, \ldots, a_{l-1}$, we define the set $S(l;a_1, \ldots, a_{l-1}) :=\{d\in \mathbb{Z} \,| \, d>0, \sqrt{d}=[a_0, \overline{a_1, \ldots, a_{l-1}, 2a_0}]\}$. In this paper, we completely determine when $S(l;a_1, \ldots, a_{l-1})$ is not empty in the case that $l$ is $4$, $5$, $6$, or $7$. We also give similar results for $(1+\sqrt{d})/2$. For the case that $l$ is $4$, $5$, or $6$, we explicitly describe the fundamental units of the real quadratic field $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d})$. Finally, we apply our results to the Mordell conjecture for the fundamental units of $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d})$.
Keywords: continued fractions, quadratic fields, fundamental units.
MSC numbers: Primary 11A55; Secondary 11R11, 11R27
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